map ethiopiaFull Name of the Country: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Capital City: Addis Ababa

Land: Ethiopia covers an area of 1.14 million square kilometers (944,000 square miles) Climate.

There are two major seasons: the dry season prevails from October through May; the wet season runs from June to September.

Ethiopian climatic zone
Traditionally Ethiopia has five climatic zones

Bereha: hot and arid desert lowland lie below 500m and receives less than 500mm of precipitation annually. Inhibited by pastoralists. Somali border area and rift valley north of Addis Ababa.

Kolla: warm to hot, mid-altitude location receives sufficient rainfall. The rift valley b/n Addis Ababa and Awassa

Weynadega: warm to cool medium to high altitude receiving more than 1500mm annual rainfall. Excellent for cultivation of grains (teff) and coffee most highlands below 2600 contour e.g. Addis Ababa, aselajimma, goba   other most high lands below 2600m contour. 

Dega: cool to cold, medium to high rainfall, with an altitude range b/n 2600m-3200m support grass land or coniferous forest. Cultivate grains such as barley and wheat.  Dinsho, debrebrehan, mehalmeda, ankober other high lands range b/n 2600-3200m.

Worch: chilly, medium to low rainfall, with the vegetation of afro-alphine. Generally conductive to cultivation.  Sanetti plateau (bale national park), the eastern peaks of simiens, gussa plateau, or peaks above 3200-3500m.

Ethiopia has an elevated central plateau varying in height between 2,000 and 3,000 meters. In the north and centre of the country there are some 25 mountains whose peaks rise over 4,000 meters. The most famous Ethiopian river is the Blue Nile (or Abay), which runs a distance of 1,450 kilometers from the source in Lake Tana, to join the White Nile at Khartoum.

About 85 per cent of the population earns living from the land, mainly as subsistence farmers. Agriculture is the backbone of the national economy and the principal exports from this sector are coffee, oil seeds, pulses, flowers, vegetables, sugar and foodstuffs for animals. There is also a thriving livestock sector, exporting cattle on the hoof, hides and skins.

Ethiopia is a multi-ethnic state with a great variety of languages spoken in the country, of which there are 83 with 200 dialects. Amharic is the working language of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia while Oromigna, Tigrigna and Guragina are widely spoken. Moreover, English, Italian, French and Arabic are widely spoken in the spheres of commerce and education.

Major religions in the country are Christianity and Islam.

Internet domain or country code suffix .et Numerous internet cafes are available in Addis Ababa and in other cities.

Electric supply:
Ethiopia uses 220 volts 50 cycles AC.

International dialing code: +251

Ethiopia is in the GMT + 3 hours time zone. Ethiopia follows the Julian calendar.

The population is estimated at 100 million (UN 2018)

Main Exports:
Coffee, hides, oil seeds, beeswax, meat, sugarcane, and flowers.

Excursions within Ethiopia, whether for a day or for a month, may be organized for you by any of the travel agencies or by the National Tour Operation.

In general between seasons clothes are appropriate. At higher altitudes, woolen clothes or a coat are needed in the evenings. Travelers should take rain coat or other rainwear, particularly when visiting the country during the period from February to October. It is usually possible to have clothes laundered at or near hotels within a short period of time (frequently services are offered 24 hours a day).

Addis Ababa has hotels that cater for all pockets, from the luxurious Sheraton and Hilton hotels to the tourist-class hotels such as the Ghion, the Ethiopia and the Wabi Shebelle. All tourist resorts offer a choice of modern hotels.

Banking Hours:
Banking hours are usually from 8:00 am – 4:00 pm from Monday to Friday and from 8:00 am – 11:00 am on Saturdays. Closing times may be an hour longer in some private banks. Most banks work through lunchtime; however foreign exchange services are closed during lunch hours (12:00 noon – 1:00 pm).

Shopping Hours:
Shops are open Monday to Friday 8:00am-12:00pm and 1:00pm-very flexible, often longer opening hours; some shops are also open on Saturday. These days a few supermarkets and beauty salons in the capital are working 24 hours.

Telephone, fax and Internet access is available in Addis Ababa in most hotels, at the Ethiopian Telecommunications Authority main office and at private Internet service centers situated around the city. Courier and Money Transfer Services Money transfers can be made through Western Union and Money Gram. Both have representative branches in Addis Ababa and also make their services available from private and national banks. Four courier service providers DHL, FedEx, UPS, TNT and EMS have offices in Addis Ababa.

The local currency is the Ethiopian Birr (ETB), made up of 100 cents. Birr notes are available in denominations of 5, 10, 50, 100 and 200. Visitors may import an unlimited amount of foreign currency but this must be declared on arrival to the customs authorities on the appropriate blue-colored form. Foreign currency may only be exchanged at authorized banks and hotels, and a receipt must be obtained. The currency declaration form must be retained as this will be required by customs on departure. Visitors may change back any surplus Ethiopian Birr to cash at the airport before departure. In addition to any Ethiopian Birr, along with the currency exchange form you must bring with you all receipts for exchange transactions.

Currency Importing:
Local currency (ETB) up to ETB 10.00 per person. Foreign currencies unlimited, provided declaration is made to the customs on arrival.

Currency Exporting:
Allowed local currency (ETB), provided passengers holds a re-entry permit ETB 10.00 per person. Foreign currencies up to the amounts imported and declared.

Public Holidays:
Sunday is the weekly day of rest. Public holidays are celebrated according to the Ethiopian (Julian) Calendar which consists of twelve months of thirty days each and a thirteenth month of five days (six days in leap year). The calendar is seven years behind the Western or Gregorian Calendar, with New Year falling in the month of September.

Months Holidays:

  • September 11 Ethiopian New Year
  • September 26 The finding of the True Cross (Meskal)
  • October 2 Id ul Fitr (Ramadhan)
  • December 9 Id ul Ahda (Sacrifice)
  • January 8 Ethiopian Christmas
  • January 20 Ethiopian Epiphany
  • March 2 Victory of Adwa
  • March 20 Birth of Prophet Mohammed (Mauwlid)
  • April 25 Ethiopian Good Friday
  • April 27 Ethiopian Easter
  • May 1 International Labour
  • Day May 5 Ethiopian patriots’ victory day
  • May 28 Downfall of the Dergue Regime

*The holidays of Id al Fater and Id al Adaha and the Prophet Muhammad S.A.W.) are subject to moon sighting.

Duty-free imports are permitted for up to: 200 cigarettes, 50 cigars, or 1/2 lb of tobacco 2 liters of alcoholic beverages Half-liter or two bottles of perfume. Visitors may export souvenirs, although some articles (such as animal skin and antiques) require an export permit.

Health requirements:
Prior to entry, visitors should be in possession of a valid health certificate for yellow fever. Vaccination against cholera is also required for any person who has visited or transited a cholera-infected area within six days prior to arrival in Ethiopia.

Visa and immigration requirements:
Visa are required for all foreign visitors to Ethiopian, with the exception of nationals of Kenya. Visa applications may be obtained at Ethiopia’s diplomatic missions overseas. However, nationals of 36 countries are now allowed to receive their tourist visas on arrival in Ethiopia at the regular charge.

The list includes Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greek, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Kuwait, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, North Korea, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, Slovakia,South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Citizens of United Kingdom and United States.

For China including passports issued in Hong Kong (SAR China) and MACAO (SAR China), Visa is available on arrival.